Section Code: 0015 - 0036
Thai Civil and Commercial Code
Section 15. Beginning of Human Life
Personality begins with the full completion of birth as a living child and ends with death.
A child who is still inside the mother’s uterus is capable of rights provided that the child is thereafter born alive. (Personal Rights with the Birth of the Child)
Section 16. Calculating a Person’s Age
In calculating the age of a person, the birth day shall be counted. If only the month of birth is known, the first day of such month shall be counted as the birthday but if it is not possible to ascertain the date of birth of a person, his age is calculated from the first day of the official year during which such birth took place. (Official Birth Date)
Section 17. Assumption of Simultaneous Death
When several persons have perished in a common peril, and it is not possible to determine which of them perished first, they will be presumed to have died simultaneously.
Section 18. Right to Individual Names
If the right to use of a name by a person entitled to it is disputed by another, or if the interest of the person entitled is injured by the fact that another uses the same name without authority, then the person entitled may demand from the other abatement of the injury. If a continuance of the injury is to be apprehended, he may apply for an injunction.
Section 19. Age of Majority – Adulthood
A person, on completion of twenty years of age ceases to be a minor and becomes sui juris.
Section 20. Minor becomes Adult upon Marriage
A minor becomes sui juris upon marriage, provided that the marriage is made in accordance with the provisions of Section 1448.
Section 21. Minors cannot consent to a Juristic Act
For the doing of a juristic act, a minor must obtain the consent of his legal representative. All acts done by him without such consent are voidable unless otherwise provided.
Section 22. Minors: No consent to accept a right or be release of a duty
A minor can do all acts by which he merely acquires a right or is freed from a duty.
Section 23. Minors: No consent needed for personal activities
A minor can do all strictly personal acts.
Section 24. Minors: No consent needed for basic life decisions
A minor can do all acts which are suitable to his condition in life, and required for his reasonable needs.
Section 25. A minor, after reaching fifteen years of age, can make a will.
Section 26. If a minor is given property, he can use it freely within the limited purpose provided.
When the legal representative permits a minor to dispose of property for a purpose specified by him, the minor may, within the limits of such purpose, dispose of it at his pleasure. He may do the same as to property which he has been permitted to dispose of without any purpose being specified.
Section 27. A minor can seek court permission to accept employment or start a business.
The legal representative may permit a minor to carry on a commercial business or other business, or to enter into a hire of services contract as an employee. In case of refusal by the former without reasonable ground, the minor may apply in the Court for granting permission.
The minor shall, in relation to the carrying on of business or the hire of services under paragraph one, have the same capacity as a person sui juris.
If the carrying on of a business of service is permitted under paragraph one causes a serious damage or injury to a minor, the legal representative may terminate the permission granted to the minor or may, in case of having been granted by the Court, apply to the Court for revocation of the permission granted.
If the permission is unreasonably terminated by the legal representative, the minor may apply to the Court for revoking the termination of permission of the legal representative.
The termination of permission may by the legal representative or the revocation of permission by the Court would make the minor's capacity of a person sui juris cease to exist, but does not affect any acts done by the minor before the termination or revocation of the permission.
Section 28. Juristic Rights can be taken away if found incompetent or mentally unsound.
A person of unsound mind may be adjudged incompetent by the Court on the application of any spouse, ascendants, descendants, guardian or curator, a person taking care of the person or the Public Prosecutor.
The person adjudged incompetent under paragraph one must be placed under guardianship. The appointment of guardian, power and duties of guardian, and termination of guardianship shall be in accordance with provisions of Book V of this Code.
The order of the Court under this Section shall be published in the Government Gazette.
Section 29. Juristic Acts by a legally incompetent person is voidable.
Section 30. If the other party knows the person is incompetent, the juristic act is voidable.
An act done by a person of unsound mind but not adjudged incompetent is voidable only when the act was done at a time he was actually of unsound mind, and the other party had knowledge of such unsoundness.
Section 31. Adjudged incompetence can be revoked by a Court.
If the cause of the incompetence ceases to exist, the Court shall, on the application of the person himself or of any of the persons mentioned in Section 28, revoke the adjudication.
The order of the Court revoking the adjudication under the Section shall be published in the Government Gazette.
Section 32. A person who is incapable of managing his own affairs can be adjudged quasi incompetent.
A person who has physical or mental infirmity, habitual prodigality (wastefulness) or habitual intoxication or other similar causes that make him incapable of managing his own affairs, or whose management is likely to cause detriment to his own property or family, may be adjudged as quasi incompetent by the Court upon application by any of the persons specified in Section 28.
The person adjudged quasi-incompetent under paragraph one must be placed under curatorship.
The appointment of curator shall be in accordance with the provisions of Book V of the Code.
The order of the Court under the Section shall be published in the Government Gazette.
Section 33. Changing the designation of an incompetent or quasi-incompetent person if it is better suited.
If it is found by the Court in trial of the case for a person to be adjudged incompetent on account of unsound mind that he is not a person of unsound mind but has mental infirmity, he may, if is deemed suitable by the Court or upon the application of the party or the persons specified in Section 28, be adjudged as quasi-incompetent. The same shall apply if it is found by the Court in trial of the case for a person to be adjudged quasi-incompetent on account of mental infirmity that he is a person of unsound mind, he may, if it is deemed suitable by the Court or upon the application of the party or the person specified in Section 28, be adjudged as incompetent.
Section 34. A quasi incompetent person must obtain the consent of his curator for doing the following juristic acts:
- Investing his property.
- Accepting the return of the invested property, principal or other capital.
- Contracting a loan or lending money, borrowing or leasing value movable.
- Giving security by any means whatever that affects him to make a forced payment.
- Hiring or letting property longer than six months if the property is movable or three years if the property is immovable.
- Making a gift, except the gift made suitable for situation in his life, for philanthropy, social or moral obligations.
- Accepting a gift encumbered with a charge or refusing a gift.
- Doing any act whose object is the acquiring of, or parting with, a right in an immovable or a valuable movable.
- Constructing, modifying building or other structures, or making extensive repairs.
- Entering an action in Court or doing any legal proceedings except the application made under Section 35 and the application for removal of his curator.
- Making a compromise or submitting a dispute to arbitration
The curator can ask the court to add additional items to the list if it is detrimental to the quasi-incompetent persons’ property or family.
For acts other than those mentioned in paragraph one, the conduct of which by a quasi-incompetent may be detriment to his own property or family, the Court is empowered, in giving and order effecting any person to be quasi-incompetent or upon the application made subsequently by the curator, to instruct the quasi-incompetent to obtain consent of the curator prior to conduct of such acts.
The Court may allow the curator to act on behalf of a quasi-incompetent person. If the quasi-incompetent cannot do any act as mentioned in paragraph one or paragraph two by himself because of his physical or mental infirmity, the Court may give an order empowering the curator to act on behalf of the quasi incompetent, and the provisions relating to guardian shall apply necessary changes.
The order of the Court under this Section shall be published in the Government Gazette. Any act contrary to the provisions of this Section is voidable.
Section 35. A quasi-incompetent person can petition the court to act without consent of curator.
If the curator does not give consent to the quasi-incompetent for doing any acts under Section 34 with unreasonable ground, the Court may, upon the application of the quasi-incompetent, permit him to do the act without having to obtain consent of his curator, should the act will be beneficial to the quasi-incompetent.
Section 36. Court can make changes to the order as circumstances change.
If the cause for the Court adjustment of the quasi-incompetent ceases to exist, the provisions of Section 33 shall apply necessary changes.