Section Code: 1356 - 1366

Thai Civil and Commercial Code


Chapter 3: Co-Ownership

Section 1356. Co-Ownership

If a property belongs to several persons in common the provisions of this chapter apply unless otherwise provided by law.

Section 1357. Co-owners are presumed to have equal shares.

Section 1358. Co-owners are presumed to have the right to manage the property in common.

Matters of ordinary management are decided by the majority of the co-owners. However, each co-owner may do an act of ordinary management unless the majority has decided otherwise; but, in any case he may do acts of preservation.

All important matters of management must be decided by a majority of co-owners who must also represent at least half of the value of the property.

A change of object may be decided upon only by the consent of all the co-owners.

Section 1359. Right to Recover Property against Third Persons

Each co-owner may exercise, as against third persons, any right arising from ownership in respect of the whole property, subject however, in case of a claim for the recovery of the property, to the conditions specified in Section 302 of this Code.

Section 1360. Use of Property

Each co-owner is entitled to use the property in so far as such use is not incompatible with the rights of the other co-owners.

Section 1361. Right to Mortgage their own share of Property

Each co-owner may dispose of, mortgage, or create a charge on, his share.

The property itself may be disposed of, pledged, mortgaged or made subject to a charge only with the consent of all the co-owners.

However, if a co-owner has disposed of, pledged, mortgaged or created a charge on, the property without the consent of all the other co-owners, and he subsequently becomes the sole owner of it, such act shall become valid.

Section 1362. Obligations for Common Obligation

Each co-owner is under the obligation to the other co-owners to bear in proportion to his share the costs of management, taxation and expenses for the preservation of the property as well as for its common use.

Section 1363. Right to Partition

Each co-owner is entitled to demand partition of the property, unless he is debarred from doing so by a juristic act or in consequence of the permanent character of the purpose of the co-ownership.

The right to demand partition may not be excluded by a juristic act for a period exceeding ten years at a time.

A co-owner may not demand partition at an unreasonable moment.

Section 1364. Partition

Partition is effected by actually dividing the property, or by selling it and dividing the proceeds of sale, between the co-owners.

If the co-owners cannot agree as to the manner of effecting partition, the Court may, on the application of any of them, order the actual division of the property, and any inequality there may be in the shares allotted may be rectified by compensation in money. If such division is not possible or is likely to cause serious loss, the Court may order the sale of the property by private auction among the co-owners or by public auction.

Section 1365. Joint Liability to Third Person

If the co-owners are jointly liable to a third person for an obligation in respect of the common property, or for another obligation incurred for the purpose of fulfilling such obligation, each may, at the time of partition, require that performance be made out of the common property or secured therefrom.

If a co-owner is liable to another co-owner for an obligation arising out of co-ownership or for another obligation incurred for the purpose of fulfilling such obligation, the latter may, at the time of partition, require that performance be made out of the share of the common property allotted to his debtor or secured therefrom.

The above rights may be exercised against a transferee of a co-owner's share or a successor to the same.

If sale of the common property is necessary, the provisions of the foregoing section shall apply.

Section 1366. Proportional Liabilities

Each co-owner has, in proportion to his share, the same liabilities as a seller in respect of the property which the other co-owners have received under the partition.