Section Code: 1308 - 1334
Thai Civil and Commercial Code
Chapter 1: Acquisition of Ownership
Section 1308. River Deposits
Where land is formed by alluvion (river deposits), it becomes the property of the riparian owner.
Section 1309. Islands are State Property
Islands formed in a lake or water-way of in territorial waters, and beds of water-ways left dry, are the property of the State.
Section 1310. Good Faith Wrongful Construction of a Building
If a person has, in good faith, constructed a building upon another person's land, the owner of the land becomes the owner of the building, but he must pay the constructor for any increase of value accruing to the land by reason of the building.
However, if the owner of the land can show that there was negligence on his part, he may refuse to take the building and require that it be removed by the constructor and the land put in its former condition, unless this cannot be done at reasonable costs, in which case he may require the constructor to buy the whole or part of the land at the market price.
Section 1311. Bad Faith Wrongful Construction of a Building
If a person has, in bad faith, constructed a building upon another person's land, he must return the land after having put it in its former condition, unless the owner of the land chooses to have it returned in its present condition, in which case the owner of the land must pay at his option the price of the building or a sum representing the increased value of the land.
Section 1312. Good Faith Building Encroachment
If a person has, in good faith, constructed a building encroaching on another person's land, the constructor is the owner of the building, subject to his paying the owner of the land for the use of such land and having his rights on the encroached land registered as servitude. The owner of the land may demand cancellation of the registration if subsequently the building is totally destroyed.
If the constructor of the building is in bad faith, the owner of the land may require that it be removed by the constructor and the land put in its former condition, at the expense of the latter.
Section 1313. Conditional Owner – Undue Enrichment
If the conditional owner of a piece of land has constructed a building on it and the land becomes afterwards the property of another person by effect of the condition, the provisions of this Code concerning Undue Enrichment shall apply.
Section 1314. Trees and Crops on Land - Harvesting
The provisions of Sections 1310, 1311 and 1313 apply mutatis mutandis to any kind of work which is fixed to land, and to the planting of trees or crops.
However, in case of paddy or other crops harvested one or more times a year, the owner of the land must either allow the person in good faith or the conditional owner who has made the planting to remain in the possession of the land till after the harvest on payment of a sum of money based on the rental value of the land, or take immediate possession of the land on payment of compensation to the other party.
Section 1315. Reimbursement for Benefit
When a person has constructed buildings, or has made any other work which is fixed to land, or has planted trees or crops, on his land with materials belonging to another person, he becomes the owner of the materials, but he must pay for their value.
Section 1316. Joint Ownership of Movables
If several movables belonging to different persons have been joined in such matter that they become component parts or indivisible, the different persons become co-owners of the composite thing, each person's share being proportionate to the value of his thing at the time of its being joined with the other things.
If one of the things could be regarded as the principal thing, the owner becomes the sole owner of the composite thing, but he must pay the value of the other things to their respective owners.
Section 1317. Use of Another’s Materials
If a person uses materials belonging to another person to make a new thing, the latter person becomes the owner of such thing, irrespective of the question whether the materials can or cannot assume their former condition, but he must pay for the work.
However, if the value of the work greatly exceeds the value of the materials used, the worker shall become the owner of the thing which is the result of his work, but he must pay the value of the materials.
Section 1318. Ownership by Occupation
A person may acquire the ownership of an ownerless movable by occupation, unless the occupation is forbidden by law or is in violation of another person's right to occupation of such movable.
Section 1319. Renouncing Ownership
A movable becomes ownerless if the owner gives up its possession with the intention of renouncing its ownership.
Section 1320. Wild Animals are Ownerless
Subject to special laws and regulations relating thereto, wild animals are ownerless so long as they have their freedom. Wild animals in zoological gardens and fishes in pounds or other enclosed private waters are not ownerless.
A captured wild animal becomes ownerless if it regains its freedom and the owners does not pursue it without delay or gives up the pursuit.
A tamed animal becomes ownerless if it gives up the habit of returning.
Section 1321. Catching a Wild Animal
Subject to special laws and regulations relating thereto, a person who catches a wild animal on waste lands or in public waters, or, without opposition of the owner, on private lands or in private waters, becomes its owner.
Section 1322. Caught by First Person Becomes Owner
If a wild animal which is wounded and pursued by one person is caught by another person or falls dead on another person's land, the first person becomes its owner.
Section 1323. A person who finds lost property is bound: (give back property)
- to deliver it to the loser, the owner or any other person entitled to receive it, or
- to inform without delay to the loser, the owner or any other person entitled to receive it, or
- to deliver it within three days to the police or other competent official and inform them of all circumstances within his knowledge which may be material for the person who is entitled to receive it.
However, the procedure provided in sub-section 3 must be followed it the loser, owner or other person entitled to receive the property is unknown or does not take delivery of it.
In any case the property found must be kept with reasonable care until delivery.
Section 1324. Reward for the Finder of Lost Property
A finder of lost property may claim from the person entitled to receive it a reward of ten per cent of the value of the property up to thirty thousand baht, and five per cent on the additional value. However, if he delivers the property to the police or other competent official, two and a half per cent of the value of the property shall, in addition to the reward, be paid as a fee to the Government service concerned, but, in no case, shall such fee exceed one thousand baht.
The finder is not entitled to any reward if he does not comply with the provisions of the foregoing section.
Section 1325. One Year Statute of Limitations for person to claim property
If the finder of lost property has complied with the provisions of Section 1323 and the person entitled to receive it has not claimed it within one year from the day of find, the ownership vested in the finder.
However, if the unclaimed property is an antique object, the ownership vested in the State, but the finder is entitled to receive a reward of ten per cent of its value.
Section 1326. Property thrown into the Sea and Washed Ashore
The finding of property thrown into the sea or water-ways or washed ashore is governed by the laws and regulations relations thereto.
Section 1327. Property Used in a Crime
Subject to the provisions of the criminal law, the ownership of anything which has been used for committing, or has been acquired through, or is otherwise connected with, an offence, and placed under the care of a Government Department, is vested in the State if it has not been claimed by the owner within one year from the day of its being so placed or, in case of a criminal action having been entered in Court, from the day of final judgment. However, if the owner is unknown, the period shall be extended to five years.
If the property is perishable, on delay involves risks or expenses out of proportion to its value, the Government Department may, before the expiration of the periods, cause the property to be sold by public auction, provided that before the sale proper measures are taken for recording all such particulars as may enable the person entitled to receive the property to identify it and prove his rights thereto. After the sale, the net proceeds shall be substituted for the property.
Section 1328. Hidden or Buried Property
Where a movable of value which has been hidden or buried is found under such circumstances that no person can claim to be its owner, the ownership is vested in the State. The finder is bound to deliver it to the police or other competent official, in which case he is entitled to receive a reward of one-third of its value.
Section 1329. Acquiring Property in Good Faith
The right of a person who has acquired property for value and in good faith is not affected even if the act under which his transferor acquired the property was voidable and has been subsequently avoided.
Section 1330. Purchase from Public Auction
The right of a person who has in good faith purchased property at a sale by public auction under an order of the Court or of the Official Receiver in bankruptcy is not affected even if it is subsequently proved that the property did not belong to the defendant, judgment debtor or bankrupt.
Section 1331. Receiving Money in Good Faith for Property
The right of a person who has acquired money in good faith is not affected even if it is subsequently proved that it did not belong to the person from whom he acquired it.
Section 1332. Purchase from Public Auction
When a person has in good faith purchased property at a sale by public auction or in open market or from a trader dealing in such things, he shall not be bound to return it to the true owner unless the latter reimburses the purchase price.
Section 1333. Ownership through Prescription
Ownership may be acquired by prescription under the rules provided in Title III of this Book.
Section 1334. Abandoned Land
Waste land and land surrendered, abandoned or otherwise reverted to the State according to the land law may be acquired according to the said law.