Section Code: 0137 - 0148

Thai Civil and Commercial Code


Section 137. Things

Things are physical objects.

Section 138. Property includes non-physical objects also

Property includes things as well as incorporeal objects, susceptible of having a value and of being appropriated.

Section 139. Immovable Property

Immovable property denotes land and things fixed permanently to land or forming a body therewith. It includes real rights connected with the land or things fixed to or forming a body with land.

Section 140. Movable Property

Movable property denotes things other than immovable property. It includes rights connected therewith.

Section 141. Divisible Property

Divisible things are those which can be separated into real and distinct portions, each forming a perfect whole.

Section 142. Indivisible Property

Indivisible things are those which cannot be separated without alteration in its substance as well as those which are considered indivisible by law.

Section 143. Private Property

Things outside of commerce are things incapable of appropriation, and those legally inalienable.

Section 144. Essential Components

A component part of a thing is that which, according to its nature or local custom, is essential to its existence and cannot be separated without destroying, damaging or altering its form or nature.

The owner of a thing has ownership in all its component parts.

Section 145. Trees

Trees when planted for an unlimited period of time are deemed to be component parts of the land on which they stand.

Trees which grow only for a limited period of time and crops which may be harvested one or more times a year are not component parts of the land.

Section 146. Buildings or Artificial Structures is not a part of the Land

Things temporarily fixed to land or to a building do not become component parts of the land or building. The same rule applies to a building or other structure which, in the exercise of a right over another person's land, has been fixed to the land by the person who has such right.

Section 147. Accessories

Accessories are movable things, which are, according to the usual local conception or clear intention of the owner of the principal thing, attached to such thing permanently for its management, use or preservation, and, by connection, adjustment or otherwise, brought by the owner into the relation with the principal thing, in which it must serve the principal thing.

Even though an accessory is temporarily served from the principal thing, it does not cease to be an accessory. Saving special disposition to the contrary, the accessory follows the principal thing.

Section 148. Fruit

By fruit of a thing is a natural fruit and legal fruit. Natural fruit denotes that which is a natural offspring of and is obtained from a thing in the normal possession or in the use thereof; and it is capable of acquisition at the time when it is severed from the thing.

Legal fruit denotes a thing or other interest obtained periodically by the owner from another person for the use of the thing; it is calculated and may be acquired day by day or according to a period of time fixed.