Section Code: 0420 - 0437
Thai Civil and Commercial Code
Section 420. Liability for Wrongful Acts
A person who, willfully or negligently, unlawfully injures the life, body, health, liberty, property or any right of another person, is said to commit a wrongful act and is bound to make compensation therefore.
Section 421. Self Defense
The exercise of a right which can only have the purpose of causing injury to another person is unlawful.
Section 422. Damage Resulting from Violation of Law
If damage results from an infringement of a statutory provision intended for the protection of others, the person who so infringes is presumed to be in fault.
Section 423. Slander and Libel
A person who, contrary to the truth, asserts or circulates as a fact that which injurious to the reputation or the credit of another or his earnings or prosperity in any other manner, shall compensate the other for any damage arising therefrom, even if he does not know of its untruth, provided he ought to know it.
A person who makes a communication the untruth of which is unknown to him, does not thereby render himself liable to make compensation, if he or the receiver of the communication has a rightful interest in it.
Section 424. Civil Liability vs. Criminal Liability
The Court, when given judgment as to the liability for wrongful act and the amount of compensation, shall not be bound by the provisions of the criminal law concerning liability to punishment or by the conviction or non-conviction of the wrongdoer for a criminal offence.
Section 425. Employer Liability
An employer is jointly liable with his employee for the consequences of a wrongful act committed by such an employee in the course of his employment.
Section 426. Employee Reimbursement to Employer
The employer who has made compensation to a third person for a wrongful act committed by his employee is entitled to reimbursement from such employee.
Section 427. Principal and Agent
The two foregoing sections shall apply mutatis mutandis to principal and agent.
Section 428. Non-Liability for Torts of Contractor
An employer is not liable for damage done by the contractor to a third person in the course of the work, unless the employer was at fault in regard to the word ordered or to his instructions or to the selection of the contractor.
Section 429. Everyone is Liable for their Torts
A person, even though incapacitated, on account of minority or unsoundness of mind is liable for the consequences of his wrongful act. The parents of such person are, or his guardian is, jointly liable with him, unless they or he can prove that proper care in performing their or his duty of supervision has been extended.
Section 430. Joint Liability if Improperly Supervised
A teacher, employer or other person who undertakes the supervision of an incapacitated person either permanently or temporarily, is jointly liable with such person for any wrongful act committed by the latter whilst under his supervision, provided that it can be proved that he has not exercised proper care.
In case falling under the two forgoing sections the provisions of Section 426 apply mutatis mutandis.
Section 432. Jointly Bound to make Compensation
If several persons by a joint wrongful act cause damage to another person, they are jointly bound to make compensation for the damage. The same applies if, among several joint doers of an act, the one who caused the damage cannot be ascertained.
Persons who instigate or assist in a wrongful act are deemed to be joint actors.
As between themselves the persons jointly bound to make compensation are liable in equal shares unless, under the circumstances, the Court otherwise decides.
Section 433. Liability for Animal
If damage is caused by an animal, the owner, or the person who undertakes to keep the animal on behalf of the owner, is bound to compensate the injured party for any damage arising therefrom, unless he can prove that he has exercised proper care in keeping it according to its species and nature or other circumstances, or that the damage would have been occasioned notwithstanding the exercise of such care.
The person responsible under the foregoing paragraph may exercise a right of recourse against the person who has wrongfully excited or provoked the animal or against the owner of another animal which has caused the excitement or provocation.
Section 434. Liability for Defective Building or Structure
If damage is caused by reason of the defective construction or insufficient maintenance of a building or other structure, the possessor of such building or structure is bound to make compensation, but if the possessor has used proper care to prevent the happening of the damage, the owner is bound to make compensation.
The provisions of the foregoing paragraph apply correspondingly to defects in the planting or propping of trees or bamboos.
If in cases of the foregoing two paragraphs there is also some other person who is responsible for the cause of the damage, the possessor or owner may exercise a right of recourse against such person.
Section 435. Forcing Building Owner to Make Repairs
A person who is threatened with an injury from a building or other structure belonging to another is entitled to require the latter to make necessary measures for averting the danger.
Section 436. Liability for Falling Items from Inside the Building
An occupier of a building is responsible for damage arising from things which fall from it or are thrown into an improper place.
Section 437. Automobile Accidents
A person is responsible for injury caused by any conveyance propelled by mechanism which is in his possession or control, unless he proves that the injury results from force majeure or fault of the injured person.
The same applies to the person who has in his possession things dangerous by nature of destination or on account of their mechanical action.