Section Code: 0149 - 0171
Thai Civil and Commercial Code
Section 149. Juristic Acts
Juristic act are voluntary lawful acts, the immediate purpose of which is to establish between persons relations, to create, modify, transfer, preserve or extinguish rights.
Section 150. Void Acts
An act is void if its object is expressly prohibited by law or is impossible, or is contrary to public order or good morals.
Section 151. Not Automatically Voidable if not against Public Order or Good Morals
An act is not void on account of its differing from a provision of any law if such law does not relate to public order or good moral.
Section 152. Wrong Form – Act Void
An act which is not in the form prescribed by law is void.
Section 153. Act by a Person without Capacity to Act
An act which does not comply with the requirements concerning capacity of person is voidable.
Declaration of Intention
Section 154. Hidden Intention
A declaration of intention is not void on the ground that the declarant in the recesses of his mind does not intended to be bound by his expressed intention, unless this hidden intention was known to the other party.
Section 155. Fictitious Intent cannot be used against Innocent Third Party
A declaration of intention made with the connivance (wrongdoing) of the other party which is fictitious is void; but its invalidity cannot be set up against third persons injured by the fictitious declaration of intention and acting in good faith.
If a declaration of fictitious intention under paragraph one is made to conceal another juristic act, the provisions of law relating to the concealed act shall apply.
Section 156. Intention based on Mistake
A declaration of intention is void if made under a mistake as to an essential element of the juristic act.
The mistake as to an essential element of the juristic act under paragraph one are for instance a mistake as to a character of the juristic act, a mistake as to a person to be a partner of the juristic act and a mistake as to a property being an object of the juristic act.
Section 157. Intent based on a Mistake on the Quality of a Person
A declaration of intention is voidable if made under a mistake as to a quality of the person.
Mistake under paragraph one must be a mistake as to the quality of the person which is considered as essential in the ordinary dealings, and without which such juristic act would have not been made.
Section 158. Mistake based on Gross Negligence
If the mistake under Section 156 or Section 157 was due to the gross negligence of the person making such declaration, he cannot avail himself of such invalidity.
Section 159. Intent Produced by Fraud
A declaration of intention produced by fraud is voidable.
An act under paragraph one is voidable on account of fraud only when it is such that without which such juristic act would not have been made.
When a party has made a declaration of intention owing to a fraud committed by a third person, the act is voidable only if the other party knew or ought to have known of the fraud.
Section 160. Avoiding Declaring Intention
The avoidance of a declaration of intention produced by fraud cannot be set up against a third person acting in good faith.
Section 161. Incidental Fraud
If the fraud is only incidental that is to say it has merely induced a party to accept more onerous terms than would otherwise have done, such party can only claim compensation for damage resulting from such fraud.
Section 162. Hiding Material Information
In bilateral juristic acts, the intentional silence of one of the parties in respect to a fact or quality of which the other party is ignorant, is deemed to be a fraud if it is proved that, without it, the act would not have been made.
Section 163. Both Parties Acted with Fraud
If both parties acted with fraud, neither of them can allege it to void the act or to claim compensation.
Section 164. Declaration Made Under Distress
Duress, in order to make an act voidable, must be imminent and so severe that makes him fear and without it, the act would not have been made.
Section 165. Threat of a use of a right is not duress
The threat of the normal exercise of a right is not considered duress. Any act made owning to reverential fear is not considered an act made under duress.
Section 166. Duress spoils a Juristic Act
Duress vitiates the juristic act, even when it is exercised by a third person.
Section 167. Determining the True Intent
In determining a case of mistake, fraud or duress, the sex, age, position health, temperament of the person made the intention and all other circumstances and environment which may relate to that act shall be taken into consideration.
Section 168. Declaration is Active when Received
A declaration of intention made to a person in his presence takes effect from the time when it becomes known to the receiver of the intention. This also apply to the declaration of intention made by one person to the other through telephone, other communication devices, or other means through which similar communication can be made.
Section 169. Declaration is active after it reaches the receiver, not previously or simultaneously
A declaration of intention made to a person not in his presence takes effect from the time when it reached the receiver of the intention. If does not become effective if a revocation reaches him previously or simultaneously.
Even though the person who made a declaration of intention dies, becomes incompetent or quasi-incompetent by an order of the Court after it has been sent, the validity of declaration is not impaired thereby.
Section 170. A Declaration of Intention made to a person without capacity is not legally binding
If the declaration of intention is made to a minor or a person adjudged incompetent or quasi-incompetent, it cannot be set up against him unless his legal representative, guardian or curator, as the case may be, has knowledge of it or has given prior consent to it.
The provisions of paragraph one do not apply to the declaration of intention concerning any matter that the minor or the incompetent is required by law to make by himself.
Section 171. True Intention is more important words
In the interpretation of a declaration of intention, the true intention is to be sought rather than the literal meaning of the words or expressions.