Section Code: 0110 - 0136
Thai Civil and Commercial Code
Section 110. Foundations – Non Profit
A foundation consists of property specially appropriated to public charity, religious, art, scientific, education or other purpose for the public benefit and not for sharing profit, and has been registered under the provisions of this Code.
The property of a foundation must be managed for implementing the objects of that foundation, and not for seeking interest for any person.
Section 111. Regulation and Committee
A foundation must have its regulations and must have a Committee, consisting of at least three persons, to conduct business of the foundation according to the law and regulations of the foundation.
Section 112. Regulation Requirements
The regulations must have at least the following particulars:
- The name of the association
- Its objects
- Addresses of its principal office and all its branch offices.
- Its property at the time of creation.
- Rules for the Committee of the foundation, i.e. number of the directors, appointment of the directors, term of office of the directors, retirement of office of the directors ad meetings of the Committee.
- Rules for management of the foundation, the management of the property and keeping of accounts of the foundation.
Section 113. Must have “Foundation” in its name
The foundation must have a word ‘foundation' incorporated with its name.
Section 114. Applications filed with Local Registrar
The application for registration of a foundation must be filed in writing with the registrar of the area where the principal office of the foundation is situated, and it must at least specify the owner of the property and the list of the property appropriated for the foundation together with the list of names, addresses and occupation of all the would-be directors of the foundation, including the regulations of the foundation.
Section 115. Review and Decision of Application by Registrar
When the application for registration together with the regulations are received by the registrar, and the application is found correct under Section 114 and under Section 112, the objects of the foundation are not contrary to the law or good moral or endangering public order or national security and all particulars contained in the application or in the regulations conform to the objects of the foundation, or the would-be directors of the foundation have status or conduct suitable for implementing the objects of the foundation, the registrar shall make registration and issue a certificate of registration to the foundation. The registration shall be published in the Government Gazette.
If it is found that the application or the regulations are not in conformity with Section 114 or Section 112, the particulars contained in the application or in the regulations do not conform to the object of the foundation, or the would-be directors of the foundation do not have status and conduct suitable for implementing the object of the foundation, the registrar shall instruct the applicant to make correction or alteration, and shall, after the correction or alteration having be made, make registration and issue a certificate of registration to the foundation.
If it is considered by the registrar that the registration cannot be made because the objects of the foundation are contrary or the law or good moral or likely to endanger public order or national security, or the applicant fails to make correction or alteration as such within thirty Thailand Civil and Commercial Code days counting from the day on which the instruction of the registrar came to his knowledge, the registrar shall give an order refusing the registration and inform the applicant without delay of reasons for such refusal. The applicant is entitled to appeal in writing against the order of refusal for registration to the Minister of Interior through the registrar within thirty days from the date of receipt of the refusal order.
The Minister of Interior shall decide the appeal and inform the appellant of the decision within thirty days from the date of receipt of the written appeal by the registrar. The decision of the Minister of Interior shall be final.
Section 116. Prior to the Final Decision, the Foundation application may be withdrawn
Before the registration of the foundation being made by the registrar, the applicant for creating a foundation is entitled to withdraw the application by submitting a written notice to the registrar. The right to withdraw the application does not devolve on the heirs. In the case where the application for establishment of the foundation is made by many persons, if it is withdrawn by any applicant, it shall become extinguished.
Section 117. Death of Applicant Prior to the Approval of Foundation
If the applicant for creating the foundation dies before the registration by the registrar, and the deceased does not make a will revoking the application for creation of such foundation, the application shall be effective and be proceeded on with the creation of such foundation by the heirs or administrator, or the person entrusted by the deceased. If the said person fails to proceed with the matter within one hundred and twenty days from the death of the applicant for creation of the foundation, any interested person or the public prosecutor may proceed with the matter in the capacity of the applicant.
If the foundation cannot be created in accordance with the objects set by the deceased and no testamentary disposition is provided otherwise, the provisions of Section 1679 paragraph two shall be applied mutatis mutandis.
If proceeding under Section 1679 paragraph two cannot be made or the foundation cannot be created under Section 115, the appropriated property shall be vested in the estate of the deceased.
Section 118. Foundation Requested in Will
If there is a testamentary disposition to create a foundation under Section 1676, the person charged with the duty to create the foundation under Section 1677 paragraph one shall precede with the matter under Section 114 and under provisions of this Section.
If the person charged with the duty to create the foundation under paragraph one fails to apply for registration to effect the creation of the foundation within one hundred and twenty days from the date that the testamentary disposition to create the foundation came to or should have come to knowledge of the said person, any interested person or the public prosecutor may apply for such registration.
If the applicant for registration of the foundation fails to make modifications or alterations in compliance with the instruction, any interested person or the public prosecutor may apply for such registration again.
If a protest is made to the registrar on the ground that the will does not provide for creating the foundation, the registrar shall notify the protestor to make a request to the court within sixty days counting from the date he has been notified by the registrar, and the registrar shall not consider the registration but wait for the judgment or order of the court and comply therewith. If the protester fails to make the request to the court within the time limit, the registrar shall further consider the registration of the foundation.
Section 119. Testamentary Foundation not meeting requirements
If the will that contains the testamentary disposition does not have such particulars as provided in Section 112 (1) (3) (5) or (6), the applicant under Section 118 can stipulate the said particulars. If any interested person makes a protest against the applicant, the registrar shall give an order as he thinks fit and notify the applicant and the protester of the order, he can file a protest with the court within sixty days counting from the date of receipt of the notification from the registrar. The registrar shall not consider the registration but wait for the judgment or order of the court and comply therewith. If no protest is filed within the time limit, the registrar shall consider the registration according to the order given.
Section 120. Conflicting Testamentary Foundations
If there are many applicants for registration of the foundation under the will of the same deceased person, and the applications contradict each other, the registrar shall summon the applicants for making an agreement. If the applicants do not show up or cannot come to an agreement within a period of time fixed by the registrar, the registrar shall give an order as he thinks fit, and the provisions of Section 119 shall be applied mutatis mutandis.
Section 121. Date of Vesting
After registration of the foundation, if the applicant for creating the foundation is still alive, the properly appropriated therefore shall vest in the foundation from the date of registration of the foundation by the registrar.
If the applicant for creating a foundation dies before the registration of the foundation by the registrar, the property appropriated therefore shall vest in the foundation from the death of the applicant after the registration.
Section 122. Juristic Person
The foundation so registered is a juristic person.
Section 123. Committee Representation
A foundation is represented in its relations with third persons by its committee.
Section 124. Committee Actions Valid
All activities performed by the committee of the foundation are valid even though it appears afterwards that there is any fault concerning the appointment or qualification of directors of the foundation.
Section 125. Appointment of New Directors
The appointment of new directors of the foundation or the alteration thereof shall made in accordance with the regulations of the foundation and must be registered within thirty days counting from the date of such appointment or alteration of the directors of the foundation.
If it is considered by the registrar that any of the directors under paragraph one does not have status or conduct suitable for implementing the objects of the foundation, the registrar may refuse the registration of the director.
In case of refusal, the registrar shall notify reasons of the foundation for such refusal within sixty days counting from the date of application, and the provisions of Section 115 paragraph four and paragraph five shall be applied mutatis mutandis.
In the case where the directors of the foundation vacate their office and no director is remaining or the remaining directors are unable to perform their function, the director who has vacated his office shall, if no regulations of the foundation provides, perform further the function of director until the foundation is notified by the registrar of the registration of the new director.
The director who has vacated his office on dismissing account by the order of the court under Section 129 cannot perform his function under paragraph three.
Section 126. Committee Can Amend Bylaws of Foundation
Subject to Section 127, the committee of the foundation is empowered to amend the regulations of the foundation.>
If the rules and manners for the amendment have been provided in the regulations of the foundations, the amendment must be made according to those provided in the regulations and it shall be deposited for registration at the registrar office within thirty days counting from the date of amendment by the committee of the foundation, and the provision of Section 115 shall be applied mutatis mutandis.
Section 127. Purpose of Amendments
The amendment of any particulars in the regulations of the foundation under Section 112 (2) can be made only for the following purposes:
- To make the implementation of the object of the foundation possible; or
- The change of circumstance makes the object of the foundation become less benefit or makes it unable to carry on the activities to fulfill the object of the foundation, and the object of the foundation so amended are close to the original objects.
Section 128. Registrar Right to Inspect Foundation
The registrar shall has the power to inspect, control and supervise the carrying on of activities of the foundation to be in conformity with the law and the regulations of the foundation. For this purpose, the registrar or any competent officials entrusted by the registrar in writing shall have power;
- To give and order in writing to a director, officer, employee or agent of the foundation for giving explanation and presenting facts concerning the business of the foundation, or to summon the said person for enquiry or to instruct him to send or produce accounting books and other documents of the foundation for inspection.
- To enter the office of the foundation between sunrise and sunset for inspecting the business of the foundation.
In performing the duty under paragraph one, the registrar shall produce his identity card while the entrusted competent officials have to produce to any concerned person their identity cards and a letter of power of the registrar.
Section 129. Dismissal of Director for Injury to Foundation
Any director who causes an injury to the foundation through his wrongful performance of activities or performs the activities contrary to the law or the regulations of the foundation, may application of the registrar, the public prosecutor or of any interested person, be dismissed from being director of the foundation by the court.
If the performance of activities under paragraph one is of the committee of the foundation or the objects of the foundation are not implement without reasonable causes by the committee, the court may, on application of the registrar, the public prosecutor or of any interested person, give an order dismissing the committee from the office.
In case of dismissal of any director or of the committee of the foundation by the court under paragraph one or paragraph two, the court may appoint order or a committee in place of a director or the committee of the foundation so dismissed and registrar shall make registration of the person who has been appointed as director of the foundation by the court.
Section 130. How to Dissolve the Foundation
A foundation is dissolved;
- Upon such cause as provided in the regulations, or If formed for definite period of time, by the expiration of such period, or
- If formed for any object, upon its object being fulfilled or becoming impossible, or
- Upon the foundation becoming bankrupt, or
- By an order of the court to dissolve the foundation under Section 131.
Section 131. Court Ordered Dissolution
On the application of the registrar, the public prosecutors or of any interested person, the court may order a foundation to be dissolved in the following cases;
- It appears that the objects of the foundation are contrary to the law.
- It appears that the foundation has done the business contrary to the law and good moral, or may endanger the public peace or national security.
- It appears that the foundation cannot proceed on its activities by any cause whatsoever or has stopped doing business for more than two years.
Section 132. Notice of Dissolution
When a case under Section 130 (1) (2) or (3) happens, the committee of the foundation that holds the office at the time of dissolution of the foundation shall notify the registrar of the dissolution within forty days counting from the date of its dissolution. If the court passes a final judgment or gives a final order to effect to foundation to become bankrupt under Section 130 (4), or gives a final order to dissolve the foundation under Section 131, the court shall also notify the registrar of the said judgment or order. The registrar shall publish the dissolution of the foundation in the Government Gazette.
Section 133. Liquidation
Upon dissolution of the foundation, the liquidation of the foundation shall be made, and the provisions in Book III, Title 22 on Liquidation of Registered Partnerships, Limited Partnerships and Limited Companies shall be applied to the liquidation of the foundation mutatis mutandis.
To this effect, the report on the liquidation shall be submitted to the registrar by the liquidator and it shall be approved by the registrar.
Section 134. Disbursement of Assets
After liquidation, the remaining assets shall be transferred to such foundation or juristic person whose object is in conformity with Section 110 as specified in the regulations, the public prosecutor, the liquidator or any interested person may apply to the court for appropriating the assets to other foundation or juristic person whose object is closely similar to that of such foundation.
If the foundation is dissolved by the order of the court under Section 131 (1) or (2) or the appropriation of the assets under paragraph one cannot be made, the assets of the foundation shall vest in the State.
Section 135. Accessing Foundation Documents
On the application to the registrar, any person may access to the documents relating to a foundation kept by the registrar or request for certified copies of the said documents and the registrar shall comply therewith after payment of such fee as prescribed by the Ministerial Regulations.
Section 136. Minister Right to Issue Regulations
The Minister of Interior shall take charge and control of the execution of the provisions of this Part and have the power to appoint the registrar and issue Ministerial Regulations on;
- The application for registration and the making of registration.
- Fees for the registered, the inspection of documents and the copying of documents as well as the fee for any activities concerning the foundation to be performed by the Registrar, including the exemption of the said fees.
- The conduct of business of the association and its register.
- Any other matters for carrying out the provisions of this Title.
Such Ministerial Regulations shall become effective upon their publication in the Government Gazette.