Section Code: 1435 - 1447
Thai Civil and Commercial Code
Chapter 1: Betrothal (Engagement)
Section 1435. Minimum Age for Marriage
A betrothal can be effected only when the man and the women have completed seventeenth year of age.
The betrothal contrary to the provision of paragraph one is void.
Section 1436. Consent Required if Party is a Minor
If a minor will conclude a betrothal, the consent of the following persons is required:
- his or her parents, in case both of his her father and mother are still alive;
- his or her parent, in case his or her father or mother died, or is in condition of state of being unable to give consent, or is under the circumstances that make the minor unable to ask for such consent;
- his or her adopter, in case the minor is an adopted child
- his or her guardian, in case there is no person giving consent under (1), (2) and (3), or such person is deprived of parental power.
A betrothal concluded by the minor without the said consent is voidable.
Section 1437. Khongman and Sinsod
Betrothal is not valid until the man gives or transfers the property which is Khongman to the woman as evidence that the woman after the betrothal has taken place.
The Khongman shall become the property of the woman after the betrothal has taken place. Sinsod is property given on the part of the man to the parents, adopter of guardian of the woman, as the case may be, in return of the woman agreeing to marry. If the marriage does not take place causing mainly from the woman or on account of any circumstances that make the woman responsible therefore and make the marriage unsuitable for the man or make the man unable to marry that woman, the man may claim the return of the Sinsod.
The provisions of Section 412 to Section 418 of this Code on undue enrichment shall apply to the return of the Khongman or Sinsod under this Chapter, mutatis mutandis.
Section 1438 No Compulsory Performance for Marriage
Betrothal does not give rise to an action for compulsory performance of the marriage. An agreement to pay a penalty in case of breach of the betrothal agreement is void.
Section 1439. Breach of Agreement to Marry
After the betrothal has taken place if either party commits a breach of the betrothal agreement, such party shall be liable to make compensation. In case the woman commits a breach of the betrothal agreement, the Khongman shall also be returned to the man.
Section 1440. Compensation for Breach
Compensation may be claimed as follows:
- for injury caused to the body or reputation of the man or woman;
- for appropriate expenses or debt incurred in good faith by the betrothed , his or her parents or a person acting in the capacity of his or her parents in preparation for the marriage;
- for damage suffered by the man or woman through having take appropriate measures affecting his or her property or other affairs relating to his or her occupation or earning in expectation of the marriage.
In case where the woman is entitled to the compensation, the Court may decide that the Khongman which has become her property is the whole or a part of compensation she will receive, or the Court may order for payment of the compensation without regard to Khongman that has become property of the woman.
Section 1441. Death before Marriage
Where one of the betrothal dies before the marriage, there shall be no claim for compensation. As for the Khongman or Sinsod, it need not be returned by the woman or on the part of the woman, irrespective if the death of either party.
Section 1442. Event that Makes Woman unsuitable for Marriage
In case where there is an essential event happening to the betrothed woman that make the marriage to the woman unsuitable, the man is entitled to renounce the betrothal agreement and the woman shall return the Khongman to the man.
Section 1443. Event that Makes Man unsuitable for Marriage
In case where there is an essential event happening to the betrothed man that makes marriage to the man unsuitable, the woman is entitled to renounce the betrothal agreement and the Khongman need not to be returned to the man.
Section 1444. Gross Misconduct
If the ground that makes the one betrothed renounce the betrothal agreement in the gross misconduct if the other taken place after the conclusion of betrothal, the betrothed who had committed the gross misconduct shall be liable to make compensation to the other who has exercised his or her right to renounce the betrothal agreement as if the former had committed a breach of the betrothal agreement.
Section 1445. Adultery during Engagement
A man who is betrothed to a woman may, after the betrothal agreement having been renounced under the Section 1442, claim compensation from any man who has sexual intercourse with the woman and has known or should have known of her betrothal.
Section 1446. Compensation against Man for Forced Sex Advances
A man who is betrothed may, without requiring him to renounce the betrothal agreement, claim compensation from any man who has had sexual intercourse or attempted to have sexual intercourse with the woman against her will, and the fact that the woman had been betrothed has been known or ought to have known to him.
Section 1447. Compensation decided by Court
The Court shall determine the compensation claimed under this Chapter according to the circumstances.
The claim under this Chapter, except to one in Section 1440 (2), cannot be transferred or inherited unless such claim has been acknowledged in writing or the action for compensation has been entered by the injured person.
Section 1447/1. Six Months Statute of Limitations
The prescription for the claim for compensation under Section 1439 shall be six months from the date of the breach of the betrothal agreement.
The prescription for the claim for compensation under Section 1444 shall be six months from the day when the commission of gross misconduct which is the cause of renunciation of the betrothal agreement is known or should have known to the other betrothed, but no later than five years from the date of the said commission.
The prescription for the claim for compensation under Section 1445 and Section 1446 shall be six months from the day when the betrothed man knows or should have known the commission of any other man which is the cause of the claim and the person bound to make the compensation is known, but not later than five years from the date of such commission.
The prescription for the claim for return of the Khongman under section 1439 shall be six months from the date of the breach of the betrothal agreement.
The prescription for the return of the Khongman under Section 1442 shall be six months from the date of denunciation of the betrothal agreement.