Section Code: 1335 - 1355

Thai Civil and Commercial Code


Chapter 2: Extent and Exercise of Ownership

Section 1335. Ownership of Land extends to the Airspace and Below Ground

Subject to the provisions of this Code or other laws, the ownership of land extends above and below the surface.

Section 1336. Fruits of the Property

Within the limits of law, the owner of property has the right to use and dispose of it and acquires its fruits; he has the right to follow and recover it from any person not entitled to detain it, and has the right to prevent unlawful interference with it.

Section 1337. Injury caused by exercise of property rights

If a person in the exercise of his right causes to the owner of an immovable property greater injury or inconvenience than should naturally and reasonably be expected or anticipated, having regard to the nature and situation of such property, the owner is entitled, without prejudice to any claim for compensation, to have such injury or inconvenience abated.

Section 1338. Restrictions on Property Owner Rights

Restrictions imposed by law on the rights of an owner of immovable property need not be registered.

Such restrictions imposed by law on the rights of an owner of immovable property need not be registered.

Restrictions imposed in the public interest can neither be removed nor modified.

Section 1339. Rights to naturally flowing water

The owner of a piece of land is bound to take the water that flows naturally on to it from higher land.

Water that flows naturally on to lower land and is necessary to such land may be retained by the owner of the higher land only to such extent as is indispensable to his land.

Section 1340. Damages for Artificial Drainage

The owner of a piece of land is bound to take water coming to it from the higher land in consequence of the artificial drainage of the higher land, if before the drainage the water flowed naturally on to his land.

If any damage is suffered by reason of such artificial drainage, the owners of the lower lands may, without prejudice to any claim for compensation, require the owner of the higher land, at the latter's expense, to carry the drainage right through the lower lands to a public waterway or drain.

Section 1341. Roof construction cannot place force water onto neighbor’s property

The owner of an immovable property must not construct roofs or other structures which cause rain water to fall upon the adjoining property.

Section 1342. Artificial Water Receptacles near Boundary Lines

No well, pond, cesspool or receptacle for manure or refuse may be dug within two meters of the boundary line.

No ditch or excavation for laying underground water-pipes or similar installations may be made nearer to the boundary line than one half of the depth of such ditch or excavation provided always that it may be made at a distance of one meter or more.

In any case when the works mentioned in the foregoing paragraphs are carried out near the boundary line, due care must be taken to prevent earth or sand from falling in, or water or filth from percolating through.

Section 1343. Accumulation of Soil near Boundary Lines

Land may not be excavated or overloaded in such manner as to endanger the stay of soil of an adjoining piece of land unless adequate measures are provided for preventing and injury.

Section 1344. Fences, Walls, Hedges

Fences walls, hedges or ditches, which serve as a boundary, are presumed to belong to the owners of the adjoining properties in common.

Section 1345. Replacement of Hedge or Ditch with a Fence

When a hedge, or ditch which is not used as a drain, belongs to the owners of two adjoining pieces of land in common, each of the owners is entitled to cut down the hedge or fill up the ditch to the boundary line provided he builds a wall or erects a fence along the boundary line.

Section 1346. Fruits of a Boundary Tree

A tree which stands upon a boundary line is presumed to belong to the owners of the adjoining pieces of land in common. Its fruits belong to such owners in equal shares as well as the timber itself if the tree is felled.

Either owner may require the removal of the tree, the cost of removal being borne by them equally. However, the neighbor who requires the removal shall bear the cost alone if the other waives his right to the tree. Removal may not be required if the tree serves as a boundary mark and cannot be replaced by any appropriate boundary mark.

Section 1347. Overhanging Branches of a Boundary Tree

The owner of a piece of land may cut off and keep roots of a tree or bush which have penetrated from the adjoining piece of land. He may also cut off and keep overhanging branches after giving the possessor of the adjoining piece of land reasonable notice to remove them, such notice not having been complied with.

Section 1348. Falling Fruits

Fruits falling naturally upon adjoining land are presumed to be fruits of such land.

Section 1349. Rights to Passage Way to Public Road for Land Lock Properties

If a piece of land is so surrounded by other pieces of land that it has no access to the public ways, the owner may pass over the surrounding land to reach a public way.

The same applies, if passage can only be had over a pond, marsh, or sea, or if there is a steep slope with a considerable difference of level between the land and the public way.

The place and the manner of the passage must be chosen as to meet the needs of the person entitled to passage and at the same time to cause as little damage as possible to the surrounding land. The person entitled to passage may, if necessary, construct a road for passage.

The person entitled to passage must pay compensation for any damage suffered by the land owner on account of the passage being established. Such compensation, except for damages arising from the construction of a road, may be made by annual payments.

Section 1350. Right of Way without Compensation if Property has been Partitioned

Where land has been so partitioned or partially transferred that a plot is left without access to a public way, the owner of such plot may claim right of way under the forgoing section only over the land which has been so partitioned or partially transferred.

In such case no compensation need to be paid.

Section 1351. Right to Access to Build or Repair Fence

The owner of a piece of land may, after reasonable notice, make use of adjoining land so far as necessary for the purpose of erection, or repairing, a fence, wall or building on or near his boundary line, but he may not enter the dwelling house or a neighbor without the latter's consent.

If damage is caused, the neighbor may claim compensation.

Section 1352. Right to Access for Utility Purposes – Water Pipes, Electric Wires etc.

The owner of a piece of land is bound, subject to reasonable compensation being paid him, to allow the laying through his land of water-pipes, drainage pipes, electric wires or similar installations for use of the adjoining land if, without making use of his land they could not be laid or could be laid only at an excessive cost; but he may require that his interest be taken into consideration.

In exceptional cases where the installations are to be above ground, he may require that a reasonable proportion of his land, over which such installations are to be laid, shall be bought from him at a price which will cover the value of the land and compensation for any damage arising from sale.

Where circumstances are changed, he may require that the installations be removed to such different part of his land as may be suitable to his interests.

The cost of removal must be borne by the owner of the adjoining land. However, if the special circumstances of the case so require, the other land owner may be held liable for a reasonable proportion of the cost.

Section 1353. Grazing and Water Rights for Cattle

A person may lead his cattle into or through another person's unenclosed land for grazing and watering; he may fetch water from a well or pound within such land; provided always that it is not a plantation and is not prepared for cultivation, sown or covered with a crop. The owner may however forbid such action.

Section 1354. Collection of Fruits by Custom

A person may, if permitted by local custom, enter a wood, forest or pasture land owned by another person to collect fuel or gather wild fruits, vegetables, mushrooms and the like, provided that the owner does not prohibit it.

Section 1355. Limited Rights for Landowners by a Water-Way

The owner of a piece of land along or through which a water-way passes is not entitled to draw more water than necessary for his reasonable needs to the prejudice of any other piece of land on the water-way.