Section Code: 1096 - 1116

Thai Civil and Commercial Code


Part 1: Nature and Formation of Limited Companies

Section 1096. Limited Company (LC)

A limited company is formed with the capital divided into shares, and the liability of the shareholders is limited to the amount, if any, unpaid on the shares respectively held by them.

Section 1096 bis. (Repealed)

Section 1097. Minimum Number of Persons Required for LC

Any three or more persons may, by subscribing their names to a memorandum and otherwise complying with the provisions of this Code, promote and form a limited company.

Section 1098. Requirements of Memorandum

  1. The name of the proposed company, which must always end with the word “limited”.
  2. The part of the Kingdom in which the registered office of the company shall be situated.
  3. The objects of the company.
  4. A declaration that the liability of the shareholders shall be limited
  5. The amount of share capital with which the company proposes to be registered, and the divisions thereof into shares of a fixed amount.
  6. The names, addresses, occupations and signatures of the promoters, and the number of shares subscribed by each of them.

Section 1099. Two Original Copies Required

The memorandum must be made in two original copies at least and signed by the promoters, and the signatures shall be certified by two witnesses.

One of the copies of the memorandum must be deposited and registered at the Registration Office of that part of the Kingdom in which the registered office of the company is declared to be situated.

Section 1100. Promoter must be a Shareholder

Every promoter must subscribe at least one share.

Section 1101. Director’s Liability is Unlimited

The liability of the directors of a limited company may be unlimited.

In such case, a statement to that effect must be inserted in the memorandum.

The unlimited liability of a director terminates at the expiration of two years after the date at which he ceased to hold office.

Section 1102. No Public Offerings

No invitation to subscribe for shares shall be made to the public.

Section 1103. (Repealed)

Section 1104. Shares must subscribe before Registration

The whole number of shares with which the company proposes to be registered must be subscribed or allotted before registration of the company.

Section 1105. Shares may not be issued at a lower price than their nominal amount.

The issue of shares at a higher price than their nominal amount is permissible, if sanctioned by the memorandum. In such case the excess amount must be paid together with the first payment.

The first payment on the shares must not be less than twenty-five per cent of their nominal amount.

Section 1106. Subscription of Shares

A person by subscribing for shares bind himself, on condition that the company be formed, to pay to the company the amount of such shares in conformity with the prospectus and regulations.

Section 1107. General Meeting of Subscribers

When all the shares to be paid in money have been subscribed, the promoters must without delay hold a general meeting of subscribers which shall be called the statutory meeting.

The promoters shall, at least seven days before the day on which the meeting is to be held, forward to every subscriber a statutory report, duly certified by them, containing the particulars of the business to be transacted at the statutory meeting under the following section.

The promoters shall cause a copy of the statutory report, certified as by this section required, to be filed with the Registrar of companies forthwith after sending thereof to the subscribers.

The promoters shall also cause a list showing the names, descriptions and addresses of the subscribers, and the number of shares subscribed by them respectively, to be produced at the meeting.

The provisions of Section 1176, 1187, 1188, 1189, 1191, 1192 and 1195 shall apply mutatis mutandis to statutory meeting.

Section 1108. General Meeting Transactions

The business to be transacted at the statutory meeting:

  1. The adoption of the regulations of the company, if any.
  2. The ratification of any contracts entered into and any expenses incurred by the promoters in promoting the company.
  3. The fixing of the amount, if any, to be paid to the promoters.
  4. The fixing of the number of preference shares, if any, to be issued, and the nature and extent of the preferential rights accruing to them.
  5. The fixing of the number of ordinary shares or preference shares to be allotted as fully or partly paid-up otherwise than in money, if any, and the amount up to which they shall be considered as paid-up.
    The description of the service or property in return for which such ordinary shares or preference shares shall be allotted as paid-up shall be expressly laid down before the meeting.
  6. The appointment of the first directors and auditors and the fixing of their respective powers.

Section 1109. No Voting if Promoter or Subscriber has Personal Interest in the Vote

A promoter or a subscriber who has a special interest in a resolution cannot exercise the right of voting.

No resolution of the statutory meeting are valid unless passed by a majority including at least one half of the total number of subscribers entitled to vote, and representing at least one half of the total number of shares of such subscribers.

Section 1110. Transfer of Power to Directors

After the statutory meeting is held, the promoters shall hand over the business to the directors.

The directors shall thereupon cause the promoters and subscribers to pay forthwith upon each share payable in money such amount, not less than twenty-five per cent, as provided by the prospectus, notice, advertisement or invitation.

Section 1111. Registration of Company after Subscriber payment

When the amount mentioned in Section 1110 has been paid, the directors must apply for the registration of the company.

The application and entry in the register must contain, in conformity with the decisions of the statutory meeting, the following particulars:

  • The total number of shares subscribed or allotted, distinguishing ordinary shares and preference shares.
  • The number of ordinary shares or preference shares allotted as fully or partly paid-up otherwise than in money, and in the latter case, the extent to which they are so paid up.
  • The amount already paid in money on each share.
  • The total amount of money received in respect of shares.
  • The names, occupations and addresses of the directors.
  • If the directors have power to act separately, their respective powers and the number or names of the directors whose signature is binding on the company.
  • The period, if any has been fixed, for which the company is formed.
  • The address of the principal of business office and of all branch offices.
    • The entry may contain any other particulars which the directors may deem expedient to make to the public. The application must be accompanied by the copy of the regulations, if any, and of the proceedings of the statutory meeting, both certified by the signature of at least one director. The directors must at the same time deposit with the Registration Office ten printed copies of the memorandum and of the regulations, if any, of the company.

      A certificate of registration shall be delivered to the company.

      Sections 1111/1 Registration of Memorandum of Association and Company Registration

      In forming a company, the directors may, upon completing all the following steps on the day the memorandum of association is made by the promoters; apply for registration of the memorandum of association and registration of the company on the same day.

      • Have all shares to be registered by the company subscribed;
      • Hold a statutory meeting to consider the business as provided in Section 1108, the meeting being attended by all promoters and subscribers and the business to be transacted at the meeting being approved by all promoters and subscribers;
      • Have the promoters hand over the business to the directors; and
      • Have the directors cause the subscribers to pay the amount for each share as provided in Section 1110 paragraph two and the amount is actually paid.

      Section 1112. Three Month Time Limit for Registration after Statutory Meeting

      If registration does not take place within three months after the statutory meeting, the company is not formed, and all the money received from the applicants must be repaid without deduction.

      If any such money has not been so repaid within three months after the statutory meeting, the directors of the company are jointly liable to repay that money with interest from the expiration of the three months.

      Provided that a director shall not be liable for repayment of interest if he proves that the loss of money or delay was not due to his fault.

      Section 1113. Promoters Liable Until Company is registered

      The promoters of the company are jointly and unlimitedly liable for all obligations and disbursement not approved by the statutory meeting; even if approved they remain so liable until the registration of the company.

      Section 1114. No Right to Cancelation after Registration

      After a company is registered, a subscriber of shares cannot enter a claim for cancellation by the Court of his subscription on the ground of, mistake, duress or fraud.

      Section 1115. Same Name Registration

      If the name inserted in a memorandum is identical with the name of an existing registered company or with the name inserted in a registered memorandum, or so nearly resembling the same as to be likely to deceive the public, any interested person can enter a claim for compensation against the promoters of the company and can ask for an order from the Court that the name be changed.

      Upon such order being made, the new name must be registered in the place of the former name and the certificate of registration must be altered accordingly.

      Section 1116. Public Inspection of Company Memorandum and Registration

      Any interested person is entitled to obtain from any company a copy of its memorandum and registration, for which a sum not exceeding one baht per copy may be charged by the company.