Section Code: 0277 - 0289
Thai Civil and Commercial Code
EFFECT OF OBLIGATIONS
Part 6: Preferential Rights3. Rank of Preferential Rights
Section 277. Rank
When general preferential rights conflict, the rank of their precedence is according to the order in Section 253.
When a preferential right conflicts with a special preferential right, the latter takes precedence, but the preferential rights on account of expenses for the common benefit takes precedence as against all creditors who are benefited thereby.
Section 278. Preference Ranks of Movables
When preferential rights in the same movable conflict, the rank of their precedence is as follows:
- The preferential right on account of the hiring of an immovable, of lodging in an inn and of carriage.
- The preferential right on account of the preservation of a movable, but if there are several persons entitled as preserves, a later preserves takes precedence of an earlier one.
- The preferential right on account of the sale of a movable, of the supply of seeds, young plants or manure, and of agriculture and industrial services.
If a person who has a preferential right of the first rank knew at the time when he acquired his obligation that other persons have preferential rights of the second or third rank, he cannot exercise his right of precedence against them. The same applies as against a person who has preserved a thing for the benefit of a person having a preferential right of the first rank.
As to fruits, a person who rendered agricultural services has the first rank, a supplier of seeds, young plants or manure the second, and the letter of the land third.
Section 279. Preference Rank of Immovable
When special preferential rights in the same immovable conflict, the rank of their precedence is according to the order in Section 273.
In successive sales have been made of the same immovable, the rank of precedence of the seller as between themselves is according to the priority of the sales.
Section 280. Equal Rank Conflict
When several persons have preferential rights of the same rank in the same thing, each is to receive performance in proportion to the amount of his obligation.
4. Effect of Preferential rights
Section 281. Debtor Delivery of Movable to 3rd Party
A preferential right in a movable cannot be exercised after the debtor has delivered the thing to a third person who has acquired it from him.
Section 282. Pledgee has same rights as First Rank Preference
When a preferential right conflicts with a pledge of a movable, the pledgee has the same rights as the holder of a preferential right of the first rank mentioned in Section 278.
Section 283. Movables first than Immovables
A person who has a general preferential right must receive performance first out of the movable property of the debtor, and only in case that is insufficient he can receive performance out of immovables.
As to immovables, he must receive performance first out of such immovables as are not subject to a special security.
If a person who has a general preferential right negligently omits to intervene in a distribution according to the provisions of the foregoing two paragraphs, he cannot exercise his preferential right against a third person whose right is registered, to the extent of what he would have received through such intervention.
The provisions of the foregoing three paragraphs do not apply, if the proceeds of an immovable are to be distributed before those of other property, or if the proceeds of an immovable which is the subject of a special security are to be distributed before the proceeds of other immovables.
Section 284. General Preference Rights
A general preferential right, even though not registered in respect to an immovable, may be set up against any creditor who has no special security, but this does not apply against a third person who made registration.
Section 285. Registration of Preference for Immovable
A preferential right on account of the preservation of an immovable retains its effect by being registered immediately after the act of preservation is completed.
Section 286. Preference on Completed Work
A preferential right on account of work done upon an immovable retains its effect by a provisional estimate of the cost being registered before the work has begun. If the costs of the work exceeds the provisional estimate, there is no preferential right for the excess.
The increase of value of an immovable arising from the work done upon it is to be estimated by experts appointed by the Court at the time of the intervention in the distribution.
Section 287. Preference Rights over Mortgage
A preferential right registered in accordance with the provisions of the preceding two sections can be exercised in preference to a mortgage.
Section 288. Preferential Right on the sale of an Immovable
A preferential right on account of the sale of an immovable retains its effect by registering at the same time with the contract of sale the fact that the price or the interest thereon has not been paid.
Section 289. Mortgages
As to the effect of a preferential right, in addition to provisions of Sections 281 to 288 inclusive, the provisions as to Mortgage apply correspondingly.