Section Code: 0290 - 0302
Thai Civil and Commercial Code
Plurality of Debtors and Creditors
Section 290. Multiple Debtors
If several persons owe a divisible performance, or if a divisible performance is owed to several persons, each debtor is, in case of doubt liable only for an equal share, and each creditor is entitled to an equal share.
Section 291. Joint Debtors
If several persons owe an act of performance in such manner that each is bound to effect the whole performance, though the creditor is entitled to obtain the whole performance only once (i.e. joint debtors), the creditor may demand the performance at his option from any one of the debtors, in the whole or in part. Until the whole performance has been effected all of the debtors remain bound.
Section 292. Performance of a Joint Debtor benefits all Debtors
Performance of the obligation by one joint debtors operates in favor of the other debtors. The same rule applies to any act in lieu of performance, to the deposit of lieu of performance and to set off.
A claim belonging to one of the joint debtors may not be set off by the other debtors.
Section 293. Release of Obligation to one Joint Debtor
A release of the obligation granted to one of the joint debtors avails for the benefit of the other debtors only in respect of the share of the debtor who has been released unless otherwise agreed.
Section 294. Default of Creditor toward one Joint Debtor
The default of the creditor towards one joint debtor avails also in favor of the other debtors.
Facts other than those specified in Sections 292 to 294 avail, unless the contrary appears from the nature of the obligation, in favour of and as against only the joint debtor to whom they particularly refer.
This applies, in particular, to the giving of notice, default, imputability of fault, impossibility of performance on the part of one joint debtor, prescription or its interruption, and merger of the claim in debt.
As between themselves joint debtors are liable in equal shares, unless it is otherwise provided. If from one of the joint debtors the contribution due from him cannot be obtained, the deficiency shall be borne by the other debtors who are bound to make contribution; provided that one of the joint debtors has been released from joint obligation, the creditor takes upon himself that share which the debtor released by him ought to have born.
If in a contract several persons bind themselves in common to effect a performance, they are liable, in case of doubt, as joint debtors even in the case of a divisible performance.
If several persons are entitled to demand an act of performance in such manner that each can demand the whole performance, though the debtor is bound to effect the whole performance only once (i.e. joint creditors), the debtor may at his option perform in favour of any one of the creditors. This applies even if one of the creditors has already brought an action for the performance.
Section 299. Default on the part of one joint creditor avails also against the other creditors.
If a claim and a debt become merged in one joint creditor, the rights of the other creditors against the debtor are extinguished.
For the rest the provisions of Sections 292, 293 and 295 apply mutatis mutandis. In particular, if one joint creditor transfers his claim to another person, the rights of the other creditors remain unaffected.
Section 300. Shares between Joint Debtors
Joint creditors are, as between themselves, entitled to equal shares, unless it is otherwise provided.
Section 301. Joint Debtors of Indivisible Performance
If several person owe an indivisible performance, they are liable as joint debtors.
Section 302. Indivisible Performance owed to Several Persons
If an indivisible performance is owed to several persons, and if they are not joint creditors, the debtor may only perform in favor of all in common, and each creditor may only demand the performance in favor of all. Each creditor may demand that the debtor deposits the thing owed for the benefit of all the creditors, or if the thing is not suitable to be deposited, that it be consigned to a custodian appointed by the Court.
For the rest a fact which refers only to one creditor does not avail in favor of nor as against the other creditors.