Section Code: 1655 - 1672
Thai Civil and Commercial Code
Chapter 2: Forms of Wills
Section 1655. Forms of Wills
A will may be made only in any one of the forms prescribed in this Chapter.
Section 1656. Requirements of a Will
A will may be made in the following form, that is to say, it must be made in writing, dated at the time of making of will and signed by the testator before at least two witnesses present at the same time who shall then and there sign their names certifying the signature of the testator.
No erasure, addition or other alternation in such will is valid unless made in the same form as prescribed by this section.
Section 1657. Holographic Wills
A will may be made by a holographic document, that is to say the testator must write with his own hand the whole text of the document, the date and his signature.
No erasure, addition or other alteration in such will is valid unless made by the testator’s own hand and signed by him.
The provision of Section 9 of this Code shall not apply to a will made under this section.
Section 1658. Will by Public Document
A will may be made by a public document, that is to say:
- the testator must declare to the Kromakarn Amphoe* before at least two other persons as witness present at the same time what dispositions he wishes to be included in this will;
- the Kromakarn Amphoe must note down such declaration of the testator and read it to the latter and to the witnesses;
- the testator and the witnesses must sign their names after having ascertained that the statement noted down by the Kromakarn Amphoe corresponds with the declaration made by the testator;
- the statement noted down by the Kromakarn Amphoe shall be dated and signed by such official who shall certify under his hand and seal that the will has been made in compliance with the foregoing Subsections 1 to 3.
No erasure, addition or other alternation in such will is valid unless signed by the testator, the witness and the Kromakarn Amphoe.
[* According to Section 40 of the Act on the Administrative Organization of the State, B.E. 2495, all powers and duties relating to the official service are determined by law to belong to Kromakarn Amphoe are vested in Nai Amphoe.]
Section 1659. Will outside of Amphoe Office
A will made by a public document may, upon request, be made outside the Amphoe Office.
Section 1660. Secret Will
A will may be made by a secret document, that is to say:
- the testator must sign his name on the document;
- he must close up the documents and sign his name on the document;
- he must produce the closed document before the Kromakarn Amphoe (public officer) and at least two other persons as witnesses and declare to all of them that it contains his testamentary dispositions; and if the testator has not written with his own hand the whole text of the document he must state the name and domicile of the writer;
- after the Kromakarn Amphoe has noted down upon the cover of the document the declaration of the testator and the date of the production and has affixed his seal thereupon, the Kromakarn Amphoe, the testator and the witness must sign their names thereon.
No erasure, addition or other alternation in such will is valid unless signed by the testator.
Section 1661. Deaf-Mute or Unable to Speak
If a person, who is deaf-mute or unable to speak, desires to make his will by a secret document, he must instead of making the declaration required in Section 1660 (3) write with his own land, in the presence of the Kromakarn Amphoe and of the witnesses, on the cover of the document, a statement that the enclosed document is his will and add the name and the domicile of the writer of the document, if any.
Instead of nothing down the declaration of the testator on the cover, the Kromakarn Amphoe shall certify thereon that the testator has complied with the requirements of the foregoing paragraph.
Section 1662. Public Wills cannot be disclosed during life of Testator
A will made by a public document or by a secret document shall not be divulged by the Kromakarn Amphoe to any other person during the lifetime of the testator, and the Kromakarn Amphoe is bound to hand over such will to the testator whenever the latter shall require him to do so.
If the will has been made by a public document the Kromakarn Amphoe shall, before handing over such will, make a copy thereof under his signature and seal. Such copy may not be divulged to any other person during the life of testator.
Section 1663. Will under Imminent Danger
When under exceptional circumstances such as imminent danger of death, or during an epidemic or war, a person is prevented from making his will in any other if the prescribed forms, he may be make an oral will.
For this purpose, he must declare his intention regarding the dispositions of the will before at least two witnesses present at the same time.
Such witnesses must without delay appear for the Kromakarn Amphoe and state before him the dispositions which the testator has declared to them orally, as well as the date, place and exceptional circumstances under which the will was made.
The Kromakarn Amphoe shall note down the statement of the witnesses and such two witnesses shall sign the statement or, failing that, may make an equivalent to signature only by affixing a finger-print certified by the signatures of two witnesses.
Section 1664. Will under Imminent Danger valid only one month after Testator is no longer in Danger
A will made under the forgoing section loses its validity one month after the time when the testator has again been placed in a position to make a will in any other of the prescribed forms.
Section 1665. Signature of Testator
When the signature of the testator is required under Section 1656, 1658, 1660, the only equivalent to signature is the affixing of a finger-print certified by the signatures of two witnesses at the same time.
Section 1666. Witness No Required under Section 1656, 1658, 1660
The provisions of Section 9 paragraphs 2* of this Code shall not apply to witnesses whose signatures are required under Section 1656, 1658, 1660.
[Amended by Section 15 of Act Promulgating the Revised Provisions of Book I of the Civil and Commercial Code B.E. 2535.]
Section 1667. Thai Will in Foreign Country
In the event of a Thai subject making his will in a foreign territory, such will may be made either according to the form prescribed by the law of the country where it is made or according to the form prescribed by Thai law.
When the will is made according to the form prescribed by Thai law, the powers and duties of the Kromakarn Amphoe under Section 1658, 1660, 1661, 1662, 1663 shall be exercised by:
- the Thai Diplomatic or Consular Officer acting within the scope of his authority, or
- any authority competent under foreign law for making authentic record of a statement.
Section 1668. No Need to Disclose Will Contents to Witnesses
Unless otherwise provided by law, the testator need not disclose to the witness the contents of his will.
Section 1669. Soldiers during an Armed Conflict or War
During the time when the country is engaged in armed conflict or is in the state of war, a person serving in armed forces or acting in connection therewith may make a will according to the form prescribed in Section 1658, Section 1660 or Section 1663; and in such case the military officer or official of commissioned rank shall have the same powers and duties as those of the Kromakarn Amphoe.
The provisions of the foregoing paragraph shall apply mutatis mutandis to the person serving in armed forces or acting in connection therewith, who, while performing the duties for his country, makes a will in a foreign country which is engaged in armed conflict or is in the state of war; and in such cases the military officer or official commissioned rank shall have the same powers and duties as those of the Thai Diplomatic or Consular Officer.
If the testator under the two foregoing paragraphs is sick or wounded and is admitted to a hospital, the physician of that hospital shall also have the same powers and duties as those of the Kromakarn Amphoe, Thai Diplomatic or Consular Officer, as the case may be.
Section 1670. Cannot be Witness
The following persons cannot witness at the making of a will:
- persons not sui juris
- persons of unsound mind or persons adjudged quasi-incompetent;
- persons who are deaf or dumb or blind
Section 1671. Other Persons than Testator is Writer of Will
Where a person other than the testator is the writer of a will, such persons must sign his name thereon and add the statement that he is the writer.
If such person is also a witness, a statement that he is a witness must be written down after his signature in the same manner as is done by any other witness.
Section 1672. Power to Modify Rules and Fees
The Minister of Interior, Defense and Foreign Affairs shall have the powers and duties, in so far as they are respectively concerned, to issue Ministerial Regulations for carrying out the provisions of this Book and for fixing the rates and fees in connection therewith.