Section Code: 1673 - 1685
Thai Civil and Commercial Code
Chapter 3: Effects and Interpretation of Wills
Section 1673. Effect of Death
Rights and duties under a will take effect from the death of the testator, unless a condition or time clause has been provided by the testator for its taking effect thereafter.
Section 1674. Condition Precedent
If a testamentary disposition is subject to a condition and the condition has been fulfilled before the death of the testator; if the condition is precedent, such disposition takes effect at the death of the testator; if the condition is subsequent, the disposition has no effect.
If the condition precedent is fulfilled after the death of the testator, the testamentary disposition takes effect at the death of the testator but ceases to have effect when the condition is fulfilled.
However, if the testator has declared in the will that, in the case provided by the two foregoing paragraphs the effect of the fulfillment of the condition shall relate back to the time of his death, such declaration of intention shall prevail.
Section 1675. Appointment of an Administrator
Where a legacy is subject to a condition precedent, the beneficiary under such testamentary disposition may apply to the Court for the appointment of an administrator of the property bequeathed up to the time when the condition will be fulfilled or when such fulfillment will become impossible.
If the Court thinks fit, such applicant himself may be appointed administrator of the property, and a proper security may be required from him.
Section 1676. Creation of a Foundation
A will may be made charging a person to create a foundation or directly determining the appropriation of property for any purpose in accordance with the provisions of Section 110 of this Code.
Section 1677. Who is Responsible for Creating a Foundation
Where there is a will creating a foundation under the foregoing section it shall be the duty of the heir or administrator, as the case may be, to apply to the Government for authorization to constitute it as a juristic person according to Section 114 of this Code unless it is otherwise provided by will.
If the authorization by the Government has not been applied for by the aforesaid person, the application may be made by any interested person, or by the Public Prosecutor.
[Amended by Section 15 of the Act Promulgation the Revised Provisions of Book I of the Civil Code B.E. 2535.]
Section 1678. Juristic Person
When a foundation created by will has been constituted as a juristic person, the properties appropriated to its purpose by the testator are deemed to vest in such juristic person from the time when the will takes effect unless it is otherwise provided by will.
Section 1679. Unable to Create Foundation
Where the foundation cannot be organized in accordance with its object, the properties shall devolve as may have been provided by the will.
In the absence of such provision, the Court shall, on application by the heir, the administrator, the Public Prosecutor or any interested person, appropriate the properties to such other juristic persons whose purpose appears to be the nearest possible to the intention of the testator.
If such appropriate cannot be made or if the foundation cannot come into existence on account of its being contrary to law or against public order or good morals, such testamentary disposition becomes ineffective.
Section 1680. Creditors of Testator
The creditors of the testators are entitled to claim cancellation of any testamentary disposition creating a foundation, only in so far as they are prejudiced thereby.
Section 1681. Destroyed Property
If the property forming the subject of the legacy has been lost, destroyed or damaged, and in consequence of such circumstances a substitute or a claim for compensation for such property has been acquired, the legatee may claim delivery of the substitute received or may himself claim the compensation as the case may be.
Section 1682. Legacy by the Release of a Claim
Where a legacy is made by way of a release or a transfer or a claim, such legacy shall be effective only up to the amount still outstanding at the time of the death of the testator, unless otherwise provided by the will.
Any document evidencing the claim released or transferred shall be delivered to the legatee; and the provisions of Sections 303 to 313 and 340 of this Code shall apply mutatis mutandis; provided that if any act or proceedings were to have been carried out by the testator under those sections, the person who has to execute the legacy, or the legatee, may carry them out in his place.
Section 1683. Legacy to a Creditor
A legacy made by the testator to any of his creditors is presumed not to be made in payment of the debt due to such creditor.
Section 1684. Interpretation of a Clause
Where a clause in a will can be interpreted in several senses, the sense which best assures the observance of the intention of the testator shall be preferred.
Section 1685. Legatee
Where the testator has made a legacy by describing the legatee in such a manner that he can be identified and there are several persons answering to the description of the legatee so made by the testator, in case of doubt all such persons are deemed to be entitled to equal shares.